Posts Tagged ‘surgery’
美国医学插画师协会（AMI, the Association of Medical Illustrators）每年会在美国或加拿大举办一次医学可视化行业的盛会，而且有优秀出彩的沙龙展览呈现给世人。我收集并整理出来一些作为学习和借鉴，当然这也是研究国际领先医学可视化技术的窗口。
It belongs to the Noncommercial Medical Illustration, in grayscale。Median nerve branches. It still looks so comfortable, small and beautiful. Softwares used: Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop Audience: surgeons and residents Copyrights: Medical Illustrator Du Peng Studio
2.2.1 Anatomic relationship between median nerve and medial epicondyle of humerus:
The median nerve occupied the medial side of the brachial artery at the cubital fossa and was located on the superficial surface of the brachialis muscle and the deep aponeurosis of the biceps brachii, and the median nerve continued to run with the brachial artery, with the tendon of the biceps brachii on the lateral side and the pronator anterior muscle on the medial side. Then through the pronator circular muscle between the humeral head and ulnar head to reach the forearm. After the trunk of the median nerve reached the position of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, it was connected with the medial and external epicondyles of the humerus in a direction of 94.27 ±1.74 degrees, and the distance from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the trunk of the median nerve was 27.34 ±3.08mm.2.2.2 The distribution and course characteristics of the muscular branches of the pronator teres muscle of the median nerve:
The median nerve has no branches in the upper arm. It enters the forearm through the forearm between the brachial head of the pronator teres muscle and the ulnar head under the elbow joint and sends out branches to innervate the pronator circle muscle the flexor Carpi radialis muscle the palmaris longus muscle and the superficial flexor digitorum muscle in the forearm. In anatomy, we found that the branches of pronator teres muscle were mainly 2 or 3 branches, only 1 branch was found in 1 case, the first branch of pronator ternus muscle generally gave off at the level of condyle or subcondylar part, some of them also gave off at supracondylar part, and entered into the muscle at the proximal part of the humeral head of pronator teres muscle. The distance from the point of entry of muscle to the line of the internal and external epicondyle of humerus was 17.08 ±6.23mm, and the level of the point of coronoid process was 13.19 ±2.90mm, the variation of the point of origin of the second branch and the point of entering the muscle was not statistically significant, the third branch originated mostly from the subcondyle (38.32 ±6.24mm), The distance from the entry point of the radial half of the pronator teres muscle and the ulnar head to the line of the medial and lateral epicondyle of humerus was 60.88 ±8.11mm.2.2.3 The distribution and course of the muscular branches of the flexor Carpi radialis of the median nerve:
When the median nerve perforated between the brachial head and ulnar head of the pronator anterior muscle, the radial flexor Carpi branch and the palmaris longus muscle branch appeared in the deep surface of the humeral head. The flexor Carpi radialis muscle was most common in one branch. Two types were found in 2 cases during the anatomic process. The distances between the origination point of the radial flexor Carpi muscle branch and the line of the internal and external epicondyle of humerus and the point of coronoid process were 44.25 ±5.05mm and 29.75 ±4.94mm respectively, and the distances between the point of entry of the radial flexor Carpi muscle branch and the line between the medial and lateral epicondyle of humerus and the apex of coronoid process were 60.18 ±5.47mm and 47.02 ±7.50mm respectively; The distance between the muscular branch of flexor Carpi muscle and the medial epicondyle of humerus was 65.18 ±5.55mm.2.2.4 The distribution and course characteristics of palmaris longus muscle branch of median nerve:
40 cases of gross specimens were found in the Institute of Anatomy. All the palmaris longus muscles were sent off by one branch type, and the muscular branches were fully dissected and separated. The distance between the point of origin of the muscular branch of palmaris longus and the line between the medial and external epicondyle of humerus was 41.42 ±6.16mm, the distance between the branch of palmaris longus muscle and the line of medial and external epicondyle of humerus was 59.43 ±6.15mm, and the distance between the branch of palmaris longus muscle and the medial epicondyle of humerus was 64.40 ±6.11mm.
Anatomy map can not see the specific distribution of branches, is blocked by muscle, need to be based on anatomical data roughly draw their location, blocked nerve branches with dotted lines.
It is necessary to draw the anterior side of the area of the elbow above and below the 20cm, including the brachialis, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, pronator teres, flexor Carpi radialis, palmaris longus, etc. And the trunk of the median nerve and the branches of the flexor Carpi radialis and palmaris longus muscle which originated from the pronator teres muscle, radial wrist flexor muscle and palmaris longus muscle.
Please check Rhinoplasty Secondary by the Global Masters Volume II
My medical illustration work for professor Li Zhanqiang.